What is flammability diagram?

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Flammability diagrams show the control of flammability in mixtures of fuel, oxygen and an inert gas, typically nitrogen. Mixtures of the three gasses are usually depicted in a triangular diagram, known as a ternary plot. Such diagrams are available in the speciality literature.

What is the purpose of flammability diagram?

Flammability diagrams are used to understand the tank's atmosphere and help predicts; how much oxygen to be maintained at all times.

How do you explain flammability?

Flammability is the ability of a chemical to burn or ignite, causing fire or combustion. The degree of difficulty required to cause the combustion of a chemical is quantified through fire testing. Usually materials are rated as highly flammable, flammable and non-flammable.

What is air Line in flammability diagram?

The air line in the figure represents all possible combinations of fuel plus air. The air line intersects the nitrogen axis at 79% nitrogen and 21% oxygen which is the composition of pure air. The UFL and LFL are shown. As the intersection of the flammability zone boundary with the air line.

What is the lower and upper limit of methane in Coward diagram?

23.1. The lower and upper limits of methane in air are 5% and 14.5%, respectively. It is famously known as “Coward's Diagram.” It clearly shows that if methane concentration is less than 5% or oxygen concentration is less than 12%, the mixture cannot be flammable.

Easiest flammability diagram in the world.! EXPLAINED!

20 related questions found

What is coward diagram?

The Coward explosive triangle diagram which was published by Coward and Jones in 1952 has been considered as a fast and easy way to determine the explosibility of the Page 4 4 gas-mixture. Currently, as the most popular method, it is widely used in the U.S. mining industry (McPherson, 1993; Coward and Jones, 1952).

What is Graham's ratio?

Graham's ratio is a commonly used indicator for measuring the intensity of the oxidation of coal in underground mine atmospheres. ... Graham's ratio is often used as a trigger for Trigger Action Response Plans (TARP) for the management of spontaneous combustion.

What is LEL and UEL in safety?

Lower explosive limit (LEL): the lowest concentration of gas or vapour which will burn or explode if ignited. Upper explosive limit (UEL): the highest concentration of gas or vapour which will burn or explode if ignited. From the LEL to the UEL, the mixture is explosive.

What is flammability test?

Flammability testing determines how easily a material or finished product will ignite or burn when exposed to or used near fire or heat.

What is a safe LEL level?

Atmospheres with a concentration of flammable vapors at or above 10 percent of the lower explosive limit (LEL) are considered hazardous when located in confined spaces. However, atmospheres with flammable vapors below 10 percent of the LEL are not necessarily safe. Such atmospheres are too lean to burn.

What is example of flammability?

Flammable: A liquid with a flash point under 100°F is considered flammable. Examples: gasoline, acetone, toluene, diethyl ether, alcohols. Hazard: May produce ignitable vapors at normal ambient temperatures.

Why is flammability important?

It is critically important for any company to ensure that all flammable and combustible liquids have been properly identified and stored based on their classification … not only to make sure all federal, state and local laws have been followed, but to ensure the safety of employees and the community as well.

How is LEL calculated?

To compute the LEL of any gas in air, divide the unknown concentration by the LEL listed in the NFPA Handbook. ... For example, if you take 2.5% Methane in air and divide it by 100% LEL of methane (5%), the result is 50% LEL. (2.5% ÷ 5% = 50%) The same theory can be applied to any of the gasses listed here.

What is the flash point?

Flash point is the lowest temperature at which a liquid can gives off vapor to form an ignitable mixture in air near the surface of the liquid. The lower the flash point, the easier it is to ignite the material. ... The fire point is usually a few degrees above the flash point.

What is LFL and UFL?

The lower flammability limit (LFL) identifies the smallest mixture able to sustain a flame. The upper flammable limit (UFL) identifies the richest flammable mixture. ... In specialized process applications such as combustion engines, achieving the perfect combustible or explosive mixture is important.

What does LEL mean in gas?

The Lower Explosive Limit (LEL) is the lowest concentration of a gas or vapour that will burn in air. The Lower Explosive Limit (LEL) varies from gas to gas, but for most flammable gases it is less than 5% by volume.

Are clothes flammable?

All fabrics will burn, but some are more combustible than others. Untreated natural fibers such as cotton, linen and silk burn more readily than wool, which is more difficult to ignite and burns with a low flame velocity. ... Most synthetic fabrics, such as nylon, acrylic or polyester resist ignition.

What is LEL of H2S?

L.E.L. H2S = 4.3% or 43,000 ppm. Below 4.3% = Too Lean to Burn.

What LEL means?

"Lel," for example, is a form of "lol." As the Urban Dictionary helpfully explains: Unlike what many people think lel is not an acronym in the same fashion that LOL is (it does not mean laughing extremely loud, laughing extra loud or similar). ... The word however, in essence, still means LOL.

What is UEL safety?

Upper explosive limits (UEL) are the maximum concentrations of a gas or vapor in the atmosphere that is able to generate a flash or a fire in the presence of an ignition source. A gas or vapor that has a higher concentration than the upper explosive limit will not be able to burn as it will be too rich.

What is G in Graham formula?

The initial formula as described by Graham was as follows: Intrinsic Value = EPS * (8.5 + 2g). In this case, g represents the expected annual growth “over the next seven to ten years”.

How is Graham's number calculated?

The Graham Number = Square Root of (22.5) x (TTM EPS) x (MRQ Book Value per Share). The 22.5 is included in the formula as a rule of thumb to account for Graham's assumption that the price-to-earnings ratio should not be over 15 and the price to book ratio should not be over 1.5 for an undervalued stock.

What is mining ratio?

In surface mining, stripping ratio or strip ratio refers to the amount of waste (or overburden) that must be removed to release a given ore quantity. It is a number or ratio that express how much waste is mined per unit of ore. ... For example, in coal mining the stripping ratio is commonly referred to as volume/weight.