Why is nitroglycerin given sublingually instead of orally?

Asked by: Allie Williamson
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Glyceryl trinitrate (or nitroglycerin) undergoes extensive hepatic presystemic metabolism when given orally. Therefore, it is usually given by the sublingual route, by which it is well absorbed and rapidly taken up into the circulation.

Why is nitroglycerin given sublingually?

Nitroglycerin sublingual tablets are used to treat episodes of angina (chest pain) in people who have coronary artery disease (narrowing of the blood vessels that supply blood to the heart). It is also used just before activities that may cause episodes of angina in order to prevent the angina from occurring.

Why is sublingual more effective?

1) Sublingual medications

Administration through direct absorption into the mouth provides an advantage to medications you swallow. Sublingual drugs go into effect more quickly because they don't have to go through your stomach and digestive system before being absorbed into the bloodstream.

Why does sublingual avoid first pass?

Alternative routes of administration, such as suppository, intravenous, intramuscular, inhalational aerosol, transdermal, or sublingual, avoid the first-pass effect because they allow drugs to be absorbed directly into the systemic circulation.

What happens if you swallow nitroglycerin?

If you accidentally swallow the tablet, take another. The medicine won't work if it is swallowed. Place the between-cheek-and-gum (buccal) tablet between your cheek and gum. Leave it there until it dissolves.

Nitroglycerin Medication Nursing Sublingual Tablets & Oral Spray Pharmacology Review & Adminstration

24 related questions found

What happens if you take Nitro and you don't need it?

If you don't take it at all: If you don't take this drug at all, you may have severe chest pain. If you miss doses or don't take the drug on schedule: This drug is not meant to be taken on a schedule. Take it only when you have chest pain. If you take too much: You could have dangerous levels of the drug in your body.

Do you give aspirin or nitroglycerin first?

When taken during a heart attack, it could reduce heart damage. Don't take aspirin if you are allergic to it or have been told by your doctor never to take aspirin. Take nitroglycerin, if prescribed.

Is sublingual faster than oral?

Peak blood levels of most products administered sublingually are achieved within 10‐15 minutes, which is generally much faster than when those same drugs are ingested orally. Sublingual absorption is efficient. The percent of each dose absorbed is generally higher than that achieved by means of oral ingestion.

Does sublingual avoid first pass?

The sublingual route bypasses the first-pass metabolism and hence facilitates rapid absorption of the drug into the systemic circulation.

Can any drug be taken sublingually?

Almost any form of substance may be amenable to sublingual administration if it dissolves easily in saliva. Powders and aerosols may all take advantage of this method.

Can you drink water after sublingual?

If you are using the sublingual film: Drink water before taking this medicine to help moisten your mouth.

Is it OK to swallow sublingual tablets?

Do not swallow a lozenge or sublingual tablet whole. Allow it to dissolve in your mouth without chewing. The sublingual tablet should be placed under your tongue. Do not crush, chew, or break an extended-release tablet.

Do sublingual medications bypass the liver?

Because the medication absorbs quickly, these types of administration can be important during emergencies when you need the drug to work right away, such as during a heart attack. Further, these drugs do not go through the digestive system, so they aren't metabolized through your liver.

Does nitroglycerin work like Viagra?

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Is it OK to take nitroglycerin every day?

Take this medicine exactly as directed by your doctor. Do not take more of it, do not take it more often, and do not take it for a longer time than your doctor ordered.

Why do you have to put melatonin under your tongue?

Supplemental melatonin helps regulate circadian rhythms and improve sleep quality, especially when the problem is related to certain sleep disturbances and jet lag. Using melatonin in sublingual tablet (that dissolves under the tongue) allows it to be absorbed quickly into the bloodstream.

How long do I keep sublingual under my tongue?

To use them, patients place the strip under the tongue (not on top—the tongue won't absorb much; the film needs to stick to the membranes under the tongue) and hold it there for at least five minutes or until it dissolves.

How sublingual route bypass the liver?

Drugs that are given sublingually reach directly into the systemic circulation through the ventral surface of the tongue and floor of the mouth. The portion of drug absorbed through the sublingual blood vessels bypasses the hepatic first‐pass metabolic processes giving acceptable bioavailability.

How do you increase sublingual absorption?

The use of the base or the salt and the vehicle employed had a more important effect on sublingual absorption than on oral absorption. Aconitine in alcohol was more rapidly absorbed sublingually than aconitine hydrochloride in water although there was no difference in subcutaneous absorption.

What vitamins can be taken sublingually?

Vitamin B12 can be taken sublingually, which involves placing the supplement under the tongue so it absorbs through your mouth. Sublingual B12 may be a particularly useful supplement method for children or people who have trouble swallowing pills.

Can you give nitro and aspirin together?

Taking ASA could potentially make these bleeding strokes more severe. Nitroglycerin “Nitro” is a symptom relief medication and does not target the underlying cause of the heart attack. First Aiders should focus on helping the person take ASA over nitroglycerin, as long as there is no contraindication.

Should I take an aspirin if I have chest pain?

Aspirin is a blood thinner. It prevents clotting and keeps blood flowing through a narrowed artery that's caused a heart attack. Don't take aspirin if you have chest pain due to an injury.

When should nitroglycerin not be used?

Nitroglycerin is contraindicated in patients that have reported allergic symptoms to the medication. [18] Known history of increased intracranial pressure, severe anemia, right-sided myocardial infarction, or hypersensitivity to nitroglycerin are contraindications to nitroglycerin therapy.

How long does a nitro pill last?

The effects of nitrates taken under the tongue, as sublingual nitroglycerin, only last about 5 to 10 minutes or so. Longer-lasting nitroglycerin and other nitrate compounds also can be taken to prevent angina — chest pain. Chest pain or pressure can occur when the heart is not getting enough blood.

What is the most common side effect of nitroglycerin?

Side Effects

Headache, dizziness, lightheadedness, nausea, flushing, and burning/tingling under the tongue may occur. If any of these effects last or get worse, tell your doctor or pharmacist promptly. Headache is often a sign that this medication is working.